Rotate your device for best experience from site.
Agile Approaches

Kanban boards

by Simon Buehring
Find out the benefits of a well-implemented Kanban board and discover how it can enhance your project management performance.
Kanban board

Introduction to Kanban boards

Kanban boards are pivotal for managing projects with transparency and agility. Originating from Lean manufacturing at Toyota, these boards have been adapted by teams globally to monitor tasks effectively.

Their visual nature allows for a dynamic overview of a project’s status at any given moment, making Kanban boards an indispensable tool in the Agile methodology. They operate as a living visual representation of progress, with task cards moving through stages defined by workflow columns.

This overview explains the Kanban board’s operational mechanics, demonstrating its seamless integration into the day-to-day management of tasks and workflows.

A brief history of Kanban

Kanban takes its name from the Japanese term for ‘signboard’ and is a legacy of Toyota’s quest for optimal workflow in the 1940s.

Developed by Taiichi Ohno, it was designed to align inventory with production demand and boost efficiency. This system of signals evolved to become a cornerstone of project management.

Today’s Kanban boards have adapted these principles for a wide array of industries, helping teams control the flow of work and embodying the ethos of Lean management. Understanding its past enriches our application of Kanban in modern workplaces.

Anatomy of a Kanban board

At its core, a Kanban board is a tool for visualising work and its progress. The board itself is divided into columns that represent different stages of the workflow, typically starting with ‘To-Do’ and ending with ‘Done’.

Simple Kanban board suitable for any type of work.
Simple Kanban board suitable for any type of work.

Each column houses cards that denote individual tasks or work items, allowing everyone on the team to see the status of the project’s tasks at a glance. This visual setup promotes transparency and enables a high degree of control over the pace and volume of work.

It’s the combination of these elements that makes the Kanban board a beacon of efficiency, guiding teams towards more streamlined processes and clearer communication.

Components of a Kanban board

A functional Kanban board consists of several key components.

Kanban Cards

Each card on a Kanban board represents a task or a work item. These cards typically contain details about the task, such as the description, deadline, and the person responsible for it. They move across the Kanban board to reflect their progress through different stages of the workflow.


Columns on a Kanban board represent different stages of the workflow. Commonly used columns include ‘To Do’, ‘In Progress‘, and ‘Done‘, but they can be customised to fit the specific process of a team or project.

The movement of cards through these columns provides a visual representation of the work’s progress.

Work in Progress (WIP) Limits

WIP limits are constraints placed on the number of tasks allowed in each stage of the workflow at any given time. These limits are designed to prevent overloading team members and to ensure a smooth flow of work.

By limiting the amount of work in progress, teams can focus on completing tasks before taking on new ones, leading to increased efficiency and reduced cycle times.


Swimlanes are horizontal lines that divide the Kanban board into separate streams of work. They can be used to categorise tasks by priority, team member, project, or any other relevant criteria. Swimlanes help in organising and prioritising tasks, making it easier for team members to focus on specific areas of work.

These components work together to create a dynamic and flexible system that helps teams visualise their workflow, limit work-in-progress, and maximise efficiency.

Setting up your first board

Introducing a Kanban board to your team begins with understanding your existing workflow and identifying how tasks progress through it.

Starting simple, establish a basic board with columns that reflect the main stages your work typically undergoes. Populate the board with cards for current tasks, applying WIP limits to avoid bottlenecks.

This initial setup, while simple, paves the way for a tailored Kanban system that fits your team’s specific requirements, ultimately enhancing your project management and team productivity.

Kanban boards in action

Kanban boards bring structure and clarity to project management in Agile environments. They serve as living visual representations of progress that teams interact with on a daily basis. They show the movement of tasks through various stages and can easily adapt to the shifts of project demands.

By showing work in its current state – whether queued, underway, or completed – Kanban boards create a shared understanding among team members. This transparency not only aids in identifying process improvements but also strengthens team unity and focus.

The dynamic nature of these boards, combined with the principles of Agile, helps teams remain flexible and responsive to change. This ensures that progress is continuous and aligned with project goals.

From backlog to completion

Every task begins in the backlog, a collection of work yet to be started. On the Kanban board, as tasks become active, they move into the ‘In Progress‘ column, signalling that work has commenced. The journey continues as team members pull tasks through subsequent stages such as ‘Review‘ or ‘Testing‘, depending on the workflow structure.

The final destination of a card is the ‘Done‘ column, signifying task completion. This journey not only maps out the steps necessary to bring tasks to closure but also visualises the flow of work, allowing teams to optimise processes and balance loads effectively.

Best practices for maintaining Kanban boards

To ensure a Kanban board remains an effective tool, it is important to keep it accurate and reflective of the current workflow. Regular updates and reviews prevent outdated information from obscuring true progress.

Best practices include setting realistic WIP limits, conducting frequent board meetings to discuss and reassess tasks, and ensuring that all team members engage with the board actively.

Maintaining the Kanban board is a collective responsibility and, when done well, becomes a vital component in the pursuit of continuous improvement and streamlined workflow management.

Improving team flow with Kanban

Kanban boards have a transformative effect on team dynamics, greatly enhancing the flow of work.

By providing a shared visual overview of tasks and their status, teams can synchronise their efforts more effectively, allowing for more fluid movement of tasks through the project pipeline. This transparency not only boosts individual productivity but also improves collective output. Teams can quickly identify high-priority work, adjust to shifting priorities, and make informed decisions together, leading to a more harmonious and productive workflow.

As teams become more attuned to their Kanban boards, the positive impact on project momentum becomes increasingly evident, with smoother transitions and fewer standstills.

Enhancing collaboration

Visual workflows, as facilitated by Kanban boards, act as a central hub for team communication. The board’s layout encourages team members to discuss and evaluate the progress of tasks, fostering an environment of open dialogue and collaboration. It becomes easier to share updates, offer support, and delegate work when everyone can see the status of a project at a glance.

This level of interaction and visibility promotes harmony and understanding within the team and ensures that everyone is aligned with the project’s objectives and current needs.

Streamlining the process

One of the key benefits of using a Kanban board is its ability to highlight process inefficiencies, known as bottlenecks, which can then be collaboratively addressed.

By analysing the flow of cards and noting where they accumulate, teams can pinpoint areas where resources may be lacking, or processes could be improved. Addressing these issues often involves re-evaluating the steps within a workflow or redistributing tasks more evenly.

The result is a more streamlines process where work moves steadily from inception to completion without unnecessary delays or overburdening of team members.

Agile and Kanban: a symbiotic relationship

The Agile methodology, with its emphasis on adaptability and iterative progress, finds a strong ally in the Kanban method.

Kanban’s visual approach and focus on continuous delivery dovetail seamlessly with Agile’s core principles, creating a symbiotic relationship that enhances both systems. While Agile breaks work into manageable iterations, Kanban provides a transparent, real-time view of work progress and resource allocation.

Together, they enable teams to respond swiftly to changes, prioritise effectively, and deliver value to clients more frequently and with higher quality.

This partnership underscores a shared commitment to efficiency and customer satisfaction that lies at the heart of modern project management.

Agile Kanban board: a hybrid approach

Integrating Kanban with Agile methodologies such as Scrum provides teams with a hybrid model that maximises workflow adaptability and efficiency.

In this hybrid approach, the Kanban board serves as a visual representation of an Agile team’s workflow, with Sprint tasks moving across the board. This combination promotes a balanced workload, ensuring that teams maintain focus on delivering increments while also tracking the flow of tasks in real-time.

By using a Kanban board within an Agile project, teams can improve their processes, adapt more readily to project changes, and deliver products that better meet customer needs. This Agile Kanban board becomes a dynamic tool for managing work in a way that is highly responsive.

Kanban tools and software

In recent years, many digital Kanban tools have risen to prominence, offering virtual boards with versatile features that cater to disparate team needs. Some of these include free Kanban board tools.

These platforms range from simple apps designed for individual task management to complex solutions that integrate with enterprise systems. They bring the principles of Kanban boards to the digital space, allowing remote teams to collaborate as effectively as those in person.

The choice of tool usually depends on factors including ease of use, scalability, integration capabilities, and cost, with popular options being Trello, Jira, and Kanbanize, each offering unique functionalities catering to the needs of modern teams.

Choosing the right Kanban software

Selecting the appropriate Kanban software is pivotal in harnessing the full potential of Kanban boards. To make an informed choice, consider aspects such as the size and distribution of your team, the complexity of your projects, and specific features like reporting or customisability.

Your Kanban tool should provide clear visibility into project status, facilitate easy updating of tasks, and ideally, support seamless integration with other tools in your tech stack.

Whether opting for a straightforward platform like Trello or a more robust system like Jira, ensure that the software aligns with your workflow and enhances your team’s Kanban experience.


Kanban board infographic

Learn from agile leaders

agileKRC has helped shape agile thinking by leading the teams that developed AgilePM® and PRINCE2 Agile®. We take a practical, success-oriented approach. We begin by taking the time to listen and understand your needs, before offering our real-world experience and expert guidance.

This website use cookies. Learn more